Flame Quenching Limits of Hydrogen Leaks

Abstract :-

This study examines flame conclusion limits of chemical element leaks in compression fittings and tube burners. Experimental work is conferred. Measurements enclosed ignition limits for leaky compression fittings on tubes of three.16-12.66 millimeter in diameter and therefore the ignition and conclusion limits of tube burners with diameters of zero.15 – 0.56 mm. Minimum ignition flow rates of zero.028 mg/s for chemical element, 0.378 mg/s for paraffin, and 0.336 mg/s for gas were found within the compression fitting experiments. Continue reading Flame Quenching Limits of Hydrogen Leaks

Analysis of the Effects of Temperature and Velocity on the Response Time Index of Heat Detectors

Abstract :-
Recent revisions to NFPA 72, the National Fire Alarm Code, have specified the response time index (RTI) as the sensitivity listing for heat detectors. Originally derived as a sprinkler sensitivity rating, there has been little work performed to validate the use of the RTI rating for heat detectors. RTI values are determined by plunging the devices into a hot wind tunnel at 200 C (392 F) and 1.5 m/s (4.9 ft/s). Continue reading Analysis of the Effects of Temperature and Velocity on the Response Time Index of Heat Detectors

Analysis of Hold Times for Gaseous Fire Suppression Agents in Total Flooding Applications

Abstract :-
Many of the clean agents currently used in total flooding fire suppression applications have vapor densities greater than ambient air. The denser agent-air mixture creates hydrostatic pressure differences causing flow of the mixture out of the enclosure as well as flow of ambient air in through leakage paths inherent in building construction. Hold time refers to the amount of time it takes for the concentration of the agent-air mixture to drop below a specified concentration at a designated height within the protected enclosure. Continue reading Analysis of Hold Times for Gaseous Fire Suppression Agents in Total Flooding Applications

Analysis of Fire Conditions in a Closed-End Tunnel

Analysis of Fire Conditions in a Closed-End Tunnel

Abstract :-
Many studies have addressed fires in tunnels. For the most part, these previous studies have addressed fires that might occur during operation of the tunnel, when the tunnel has openings at both ends. During construction of a tunnel, the tunnel has only one opening as the tunnel is being bored. Analysis of fire conditions that might develop during construction of a tunnel is addressed here. A number of analyses are presented to assess tenability conditions in a closed-end subsurface environment as a result of different postulated fire scenarios. The purpose of these analyses is to develop fire tenability criteria for use in evaluating subsurface life and fire safety. Continue reading Analysis of Fire Conditions in a Closed-End Tunnel

Analysis and Measurement of Candle Flame Shapes

Analysis and Measurement of Candle Flame Shapes

Abstract :-
A combined analytical and experimental study was performed to produce and validate a method by which the lengths and widths of flames burning on wax candles can be predicted. Two analogies are drawn: first, that heat transfer from the wick can be modeled as a slender vertical rod undergoing a natural convection process surrounded by a stagnant film; and second, Continue reading Analysis and Measurement of Candle Flame Shapes